HEAR 1.0 Specification

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Contents

[edit] About

Back to HEAR home

Editors:

  • Scott Wilson (scott.bradley.wilson@gmail.com)
  • Alan Paull (alan@alanpaull.co.uk)
  • Richard Entwistle (richard.entwistle@igsl.co.uk)

Authors:

  • Scott Wilson (scott.bradley.wilson@gmail.com)
  • Alan Paull (alan@alanpaull.co.uk)
  • Richard Entwistle (richard.entwistle@igsl.co.uk)

[edit] Status

This is currently a working draft of version 1.0.

[edit] Patents

This specification is subject to a royalty free patent policy.

There are no known patents covering any of this work. If you think that part of this work may be subject to an existing or pending patent, please email the editors.

[edit] Copyright and License

TBC

[edit] Inspiration and acknowledgements

[edit] Introduction

[edit] Conformance

Back to HEAR home

There are two classes of application that can conform to this specification:

  • A producer is a class of application that produces HEAR XML documents
  • An consumer is a class of application that consumers HEAR XML documents

A product MAY belong to both classes.

A strictly conforming instance is a set of structured information constituted only of elements and attributes defined by this specification and fully qualified refinements of the elements defined in this specification.

A fully qualified refinement is defined for the purpose of conformance as an element that explicitly extends an element defined by this specification. A fully qualified refinement must be capable of being processed according to the semantics of the element it extends.

A conforming instance MAY contain additional elements and attributes not defined by this specification.

A conforming producer MUST be capable of generating and sharing strictly conforming instances.

A conforming consumer MUST be capable of processing strictly conforming instances.

[edit] HEAR Documents

A producer MUST create HEAR documents that are valid XML documents.

A producer MUST create HEAR documents with one of the following elements as its top-level element:

  • AchievementReport

A consumer MUST be able to process a valid HEAR XML document.

[edit] The HEAR Template

This section is non-normative

This specification covers the structure of the XML representation of the HEAR data; it does not define the structure of the HEAR document per se. The following information is provided to give context to the specification of the data elements. Readers are asked to refer to the HEAR Guidance Document for more details.

A HEAR must adhere to the prescribed template described in the HEAR Guidance Document. The Guidance defines the sections of the HEAR and requires that sections are numbered and follow the sequence and explanatory guidance given in the Guidance Document.

The structure of the template for a HEAR is as follows:

  • Contextual information
  • Section 1. Information identifying the holder of the qualification
  • Section 2. Information identifying the qualification
  • Section 3. Information on the level of the qualification
  • Section 4. Information on the contents and results gained
  • Section 5. Information on the function of the qualification
  • Section 6. Additional information
  • Section 7. Certification of the HEAR
  • Section 8. Information on the national higher education system

On output for printing or for viewing electronically a HEAR should contain section numbering and standard statements as described in the HEAR Guidance Document.

[edit] Contextual Information

The HEAR Guidance Document gives details of statements that should be included in the HEAR at specified points, for example a standard statement at the start of the HEAR should be included in order to meet the requirements of the European Diploma Supplement (DS). Information about these statements is included in the Guidance sections of this specification.

Guidelines In the Contextual Information of the HEAR, institutions SHOULD include the following statements:

This Higher Education Achievement Report follows the model developed by the European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES for the Diploma Supplement.

The purpose of the Supplement is to provide sufficient recognition of qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certificates etc). It is designed to provide a description of the nature, level, context and status of the studies that were pursued and successfully completed by the individual named on the original qualifications to which this Supplement is appended. It should be free from any value judgements, equivalence statements or suggestions about recognition. Information in all eight sections should be provided. Where information is not provided, an explanation should give the reason why.

[edit] XML Document Structure

This section describes diagrammatically the main information elements of the HEAR XML document structure and their relationships. Definitions are included under the Core Elements section.

The HEAR model includes information drawn from Student Records Systems, Course Information Systems and supporting systems that will be created and maintained by various different administrative processes and academic practices within academic institutions. The model builds upon information about learners, descriptions of programmes and other learning opportunity structures, information about modules and other educational components enrolled on by learners, assessment results and other accredited achievements for each completed learning opportunity, and information about the awarding and providing organisations themselves.

Image:HEAROutlineInformationModel2010-11-09.png

[edit] Core elements

[edit] the <achievementReport> element

URI: [to be completed]

[edit] Definition

The default root element for a HEAR.

[edit] Core elements used within the achievementReport element

  • issuer (required, one only)
  • learner (required, one only)
  • awardedBy (required if different from issuer, one only)
  • qualification (required, one only)
  • provider (required, one or more)
  • course(s) (required, at least one)
  • assessment (required, at least one per presentation)
  • certificationOfTheHEAR (required, one only)
  • additionalInformation (optional, one only)

Guidelines These core elements are listed here, so that the major components of a HEAR are clearly indicated. Some of these elements are sub-elements of top level elements, as noted in this guidance.

awardedBy: A component of qualification (see XCRI-CAP specification).

qualification: A component of course (see XCRI-CAP specification).

course: A component of provider (see XCRI-CAP specification).

assessment: A component of presentation (see XCRI-CAP specification)

Absence of provider: Where a provider is not specified, consumers SHOULD interpret this as meaning that the awardingBody is also the provider.

[edit] Specification of elements below the root element

[edit] the <issuer> element

[edit] Definition

The organisation that is responsible for producing the HEAR.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one and only one issuer instance.

An issuer instance MUST contain the sub-elements defined below and no other elements.

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1

Uses namespace dcterms: http://purl.org/dc/terms/

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <issuer> element

  • identifier, dc#identifier (required, multiple)
  • title, dc#title (required, multiple)

Guidelines This element identifiers the issuing organisation, which may be a different organisation from the provider or the awarding body, for example a broker.

The <issuer> element MUST NOT contain any other elements. Further elements describing the organisation(s) offering the course or awarding the qualification MUST be contained in the provider element.

[edit] the <learner> element

[edit] Definition

Information identifying the holder of the qualification.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one and only one learner instance.

A learner instance MUST contain the sub-elements defined below and no other elements.

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace elm: European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI).

Uses scop: the SEMIC-EU Core Person Specification (not yet published in machine readable form), which is compatible with EuroLMAI.

Uses namespace dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1

Uses namespace dcterms: http://purl.org/dc/terms/

Note The elm namespace relates to the European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI), for which see CWA 16132. The elements in hear:learner are fully compatible and strictly compliant with the elm:Learner profile, which specifies vCard properties for these elements, including Identifier. These are UK-specific implementations.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <learner> element

  • identifier (required, at least one), dc#identifier. Unique identifier for the learner.
  • familyName (required, one element only), elm#familyName. Full family or surname, as included on official documents, such as a passport.
  • givenNames (required, one element only), elm#givenNames. All given or first names in the order specified by the learner, as included on official documents, such as a passport.
  • fullName (required, one only), elm#fullName. The complete name of the learner; components should be those included on official documents, such as a passport.
  • birthday (required, one only), scop#dateOfBirth. Date of birth of the learner.
  • identifierDescription (optional), used to indicate the provenance of the identifier. Required text for the HUSID is as follows

"HUSID (HESA Unique Student Identifier) is the unique national identifying number for students registered at a UK university. It is defined by HESA, the UK's Higher Education Statistics Agency."

Guidelines dateOfBirth: This value MUST be in ISO 8601 date format, yyyy-mm-dd (example: "1985-05-16"). Note that this specification does not prescribe the final form output for date (for example in a PDF or paper document); implementers may wish to present the date in an alternative format to end users. Additionally there may be applications, such as outputs for employers, in which the inclusion of the learner's dateOfBirth is not required.

identifier: Where the HESA Unique Student Identifier (HUSID) is known, for example stored in the Student Record System, this value MUST be the learner's HUSID. In other cases a different authoritative identifier MUST be used. Alternatives recommended in this specification include the Unique Learner Number (ULN) and the Scottish Candidate Number (SCN). Namespace refinements for these identifiers are included in the HEAR XML schema. For identifiers other than the HUSID, ULN or SCN implementers MUST either extend the identifier element to include another namespace or indicate the provenance of the identifier in the comment attribute. An internal issuer or awardingBody identifier can also be included.

[edit] the <qualification> element

URI: http://purl.org/net/qm#Qualification

[edit] Definition

A status awarded to or conferred on a learner by an awarding body.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one and only one qualification instance. Instances of associate qualifications or other achievements not forming part of the learner's academic achievements as a result of following the indicated programme of study MAY be recorded in the Additional Information element.

A qualification instance MUST contain the required sub-elements defined below and MAY contain the optional sub-elements.

Producers MUST ensure that the qualification element of the HEAR relates directly to the top level course element in a one-to-one relationship. Each HEAR contains information about one and only one qualification, achieved by a learner as a result of completion of one and only one top level course.

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace qm: http://purl.org/net/qm, refined in XCRI-CAP 1.2, for which see http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/XCRI_1.2_Qualifications

Uses namespace xcri: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/ and xcriTerms: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/terms/

Uses namespace elm: European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI), for which see CWA 16132.

Uses namespace eds: European Diploma Supplement

Uses namespace dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1

Uses namespace dcterms: http://purl.org/dc/terms/

Note XCRI refers to the eXchanging Course Related Information - Course Advertising Profile (XCRI-CAP v1.1) eProspectus standard.

There are currently no elements declared within the namespaces qm, elm, eds.


[edit] Sub-elements used in the <qualification> element

  • identifier (required, one only), dc#identifier. Unique identifier for the qualification.
  • title (required, one only), dc#title. Full official name of the award.
  • description (required, one or more), xcri#description. Further descriptive text about the qualification (see Guidelines).
  • subject (required, at least one), dc#subject. Main field(s) of study for the qualification.
  • level (required, one only), hear#level. Numerical position of the qualification in the relevant national qualifications framework.
  • qualificationHolderTitle (optional, zero or one), eds#qualificationHolderTitle. Nationally accepted title conferred by the award, for example Bachelor of Science (Honours).
  • issueDate (required, one only), elm#issueDate. Date on which the qualification was awarded.
  • awardedBy (required, one only), qm#awardedBy. This element identifies and names the recognised organisation (Awarding Body) that confers the qualification upon the learner.

Guidelines description: Use the recommended encoding scheme to provide detailed information about the qualification in different information categories. See the encoding scheme for more details.

subject: Put each main field of study in a separate element. On output, the elements should be concatenated to form one string. There is no nationally approved vocabulary for the subject in a HEAR. Use the institution's own terminology. If subjects or fields of study are not held in respect of qualifications, use the subjects in respect of the top level course (programme) element.

level: The level element MUST contain both the numerical position of the qualification in the relevant national qualifications framework and a cross-reference to section 8: Information on the national Higher Education System. See guidance on Education Levels and Frameworks at http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/XCRI_1.2_Qualifications.

awardedBy: The element content SHOULD contain the official name of the Awarding Body.

[edit] Attributes

  • id, attribute of awardedBy.

Guidelines id: The id attribute MUST identify the Awarding Body specified in the awardedBy element. It MUST be A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) conforming to the URL scheme as specified by IETF RFC 3986.

[edit] the <provider> element

URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/provider

[edit] Definition

An organisation that offers one or more courses.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one or more provider instances.

A < description> element MUST contain a statement about the status of the institution where the programme of study was undertaken (see Guidance Document section 2).

A provider instance MUST contain the required sub-elements defined below.

Producers MUST ensure that provider instances contain information only about providers of courses undertaken by the learner in the context of the qualification awarded.

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace xcri: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/

Note XCRI refers to the eXchanging Course Related Information - Course Advertising Profile (XCRI-CAP v1.1) eProspectus standard.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <provider> element

  • identifier (required, at least one), xcri#identifier. Unique identifier for the provider.
  • title (required, at least one), xcri#title. Full official name of the provider.
  • description (required, at least one), xcri#description. Details of the status of the provider and any further relevant details, including any statement about the relationship between the provider and the awarding body, if these are different organisations.
  • course (required, at least one), hear#course. Details of the course(s) through which the learner achieved the award of the qualification.

Examples:

     <xcri:identifier>http://www.universityoftest.ac.uk/</xcri:identifier>
     <xcri:identifier xsi:type=”ukrlp:ukprn”>12345678</xcri:identifier>
     <xcri:identifier xsi:type=”hesa:hesaid>1234</xcri:identifier>

[edit] the <course> element

URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.2/course

[edit] Definition

A course provides details of a learning opportunity offered by a learning provider.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one and only one top level course element. Further course elements MAY be included to reflect the institution's programme component structures.

The top level course element SHOULD define the Programme Level learning opportunity undertaken by the learner.

Producers MUST ensure that the top level course element of the HEAR relates directly to the qualification element in a one-to-one relationship. Each HEAR contains information about one and only one qualification, achieved by a learner as a result of completion of one and only one top level course.

Course elements at levels lower than programme level SHOULD be related to the top level course element using the relation>isPartOf element, either directly through inclusion of the identifier of the top level course, or indirectly through inclusion of the identifier of another course element.

Example

	<xcri:course>
		<!-- top level (programme) course element -->
		<identifier>1234</identifier>
		<xcri:title>Information and Communications Undergraduate Programme</xcri:title>
	</xcri:course>
	<xcri:course>
		<!-- second level (stage) course element -->
		<identifier>1234-01</identifier>
		<xcri:title>Digital Media and Communications - Stage 1</xcri:title>
		<xcri:relation xs:type="isPartOf">1234</xcri:relation>
	</xcri:course>
	<xcri:course>
		<!-- third level (module) course element -->
		<identifier>M223</identifier>
		<xcri:title>Information Literacies for the Digital Age</xcri:title>
		<xcri:relation xs:type="isPartOf">1234-01</xcri:relation>
	</xcri:course>

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace xcri: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.2/ and xcriTerms: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/terms/

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <course> element at Programme Level

  • identifier (required, one only), xcri#identifier.
  • title (required, one only), xcri#title. Full official name of the programme.
  • description (required, one or more), xcri#description. Further descriptive text about the qualification (see Guidelines).
  • credit (optional, multiple), xcri#credit. Details of the credit values and levels earned on successful completion of the programme.

Guidelines description: Use the recommended encoding scheme to provide detailed information about the qualification in different information categories. See the encoding scheme for more details.

[edit] Attributes

  • courseType (optional). Identifies whether the course is at programme level, year, stage or module. Producers MAY use an encoding scheme or controlled vocabulary for this item.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <course> element at other levels

  • identifier (required, one only), xcri#identifier.
  • title (required, one only), xcri#title. Full official name of the module or other component.
  • credit (optional, one only), xcri#credit. Details of the credit values and levels earned on successful completion of the modules or components.
  • type (required, one only), mlo#type (mlo:LearningOpportunitySpecification, type). Indicates the type of component, such as a module-level component or a grouping component such as semester, programme year, level or subject of a programme.
  • relation (required, one only), xcri#relation. Indicates the parent course element, using isPartOf attribute.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <presentation> element at Programme Level

  • identifier (required, one only), xcri#identifier.
  • start (required, one only), xcri#start. The date at which the programme begins. See [EN 15982].
  • end (required, one only), xcri#end. The date at which the programme ends.
  • description (required, one or more), xcri#description. Further descriptive text about the qualification (see Guidelines).
  • duration (required, one only), xcri#duration. The length of the programme.
  • studyMode (required, one only), xcri#engagement (studyMode). A general expression of the overall amount of the student's time that is devoted to the learning opportunity, as defined by the provider.
  • languageOfInstruction (required, at least one), xcri#languageOfInstruction. A language in which the presentation was taught.
  • languageOfAssessment (required, at least one), xcri#languageOfAssessment. A language in which the presentation was assessed.
  • assessment (optional). Information about the assessment of the presentation.

Guidelines identifier: Where presentation does not have its own identifier, producers SHOULD use and repeat the host course identifier.

title: Producers SHOULD draw the title from the course element, not the presentation element.

start: This is a temporal element. For more information on the syntax of this element, see the section on temporal elements.

end: This is a temporal element. For more information on the syntax of this element, see the section on temporal elements.

description: Use the recommended encoding scheme to provide detailed information about the qualification in different information categories. See the encoding scheme for more details.

duration: The content of this element MUST be human readable text of the form 'value' followed by 'unit of time', for example 'Three years'. The duration SHOULD be expressed in years, unless the course is shorter than two years, in which case an expression in months or weeks is acceptable. Producers MAY include a machine-readable attribute 'interval' that follows the ISO 8601 standard.

Example

	<duration interval="P3Y">Three years</duration>

studyMode: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/XCRI_Terms_1.2#studyMode

languageOfInstruction: The content of this element MUST be a valid BCP-47 language tag. Default value: EN.

languageOfAssessment: The content of this element MUST be a valid BCP-47 language tag. Default value: EN.

assessment : In an exit HEAR this element MUST be present for each presentation, otherwise it is optional.

Output of languageOfInstruction and languageOfAssessment: Consumers SHOULD present final form output of these elements as human readable text.

Absence of languageOfInstruction and languageOfAssessment: Where these elements are missing, consumers SHOULD interpret this as meaning that the language of instruction and assessment was English (en-GB).


[edit] Sub-elements used in the <presentation> element at other levels

  • identifier (required, one only), xcri#identifier.
  • assessment (optional). Information about the assessment of the presentation.

[edit] the <assessment> element

[edit] Definition

The details of the way in which the learner's performance in the presentation was judged.

[edit] Constraints

A valid exit HEAR must contain an <assessment> element for the programme and for each module or course component that is part of the programme or that is an additional academic credit-bearing student achievement detailed in the HEAR.

Each <assessment> element must relate only to the learner and the specific version of the presentation on which the learner was assessed.

NOTE: decision on retakes and numbers of attempts is still outstanding - Alan Paull

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace xcri: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/.

Uses namespace elm: European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI), for which see CWA 16132.

Uses namespace eds: European Diploma Supplement

Note XCRI refers to the eXchanging Course Related Information - Course Advertising Profile (XCRI-CAP v1.1) eProspectus standard.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <assessment> element

  • identifier (required, one only). Unique identifier for the <assessment> element.
  • assessmentType (required, one only). Description of the style of the assessment.
  • assessmentWeight (optional, zero or one). Weighting of the assessment result as a proportion of the overall assessment for the presentation.
  • attempts (optional, zero or one). Number of times the learner has made at the assessment.
  • result (optional, multiple), elm#result. The actual outcome of a presentation for a learner as stated by a provider or issuer.
  • description (required, one or more), xcri#description. Details of the grading scheme used by the assessment. This element matches with the elm:gradingScheme entity.

Guidelines assessmentType: It is recommended that producers use an encoding scheme or controlled vocabulary for this item.

result: Required in an exit HEAR, one only per assessment.

description: Use the recommended encoding scheme to provide detailed information about the assessment in different information categories. See the encoding scheme for more details.

[edit] Attributes

  • resultType: used with result. Indicates whether the result is a mark, grade or similar. It is recommended that producers use an encoding scheme or controlled vocabulary for this item.

[edit] the <additionalInformation> element

URI: This will relate to elm:additionalInformation; URI not yet available.

[edit] Definition

Details of the richer picture of verified student achievement, including additional awards (with or without academic credit), additional recognised activities, and university, professional and departmental prizes.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR MUST contain one and only one additionalInformation element. Guidance on its contents is given in the 'Guidance to Inform Institutional Implementation'

[edit] Namespaces

Uses namespace elm: European Learner Mobility Achievement Information (EuroLMAI), for which see CWA 16132.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <additionalInformation> element

  • description (required, one or more), xcri#description. Further descriptive text about the learner's achievements outside the qualification. See guidelines.
  • ePortfolioUrl (optional, zero or one), xcri#url. A hypertext link to the learner's ePortfolio.


Guidelines description: Use the recommended encoding scheme to provide detailed information about the achievements in different information categories. See the encoding scheme for more details.

[edit] the <certificationOftheHEAR> element

[edit] Definition

Provides evidence that the HEAR is a genuine document produced by the authorised organisation.

[edit] Constraints

A valid HEAR must contain one and only one <certificationOftheHEAR> element.

[edit] Sub-elements used in the <certificationOftheHEAR> element

  • identifier (required, one only), dc#identifier. Uniquely identifies this version of the HEAR data set for this learner.
  • date (required, one only). Date and time of the production of this HEAR.
  • fullName (required, one only). Full name of the official certifying the HEAR.
  • capacity (required, one only). The official post of the certifying individual.
  • signature (required, one only). [What should be in this element? Alan Paull ]
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